Pazartesi, Ocak 25, 2021

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Perşembe, Ocak 21, 2021

Archaeologists Unearth Egyptian Queen’s Tomb, 13-Foot ‘Book of the Dead’ Scroll

The team also discovered dozens of sarcophagi, wooden masks and ancient board games.

Archaeologists in Egypt have unearthed a cache of treasures—including more than 50 wooden sarcophagi, a funerary temple dedicated to an Old Kingdom queen and a 13-foot-long Book of the Dead scroll—at the Saqqara necropolis, a vast burial ground south of Cairo, according to a statement from the country’s Ministry of Tourism and Antiques.

As first reported by Al-Ahram, Egyptologist Zahi Hawass and his colleagues discovered the coffins, which appear to date back to the New Kingdom era (1570–1069 B.C.), in 52 burial shafts measuring 33 to 40 feet deep. Paintings of ancient gods and excerpts from the Book of the Dead, which was thought to help the deceased navigate the afterlife, adorn the sarcophagi.

Hawass tells CBS News’ Ahmed Shawkat that researchers first started excavating the site, which stands next to the pyramid of King Teti, first of the Sixth Dynasty rulers of the Old Kingdom (2680–2180 B.C.), in 2010.

“[B]ut we didn’t find a name inside the pyramid to tell us who the pyramid belonged to,” he adds.

Now, reports Agence France-Presse, experts have finally identified the complex—which boasts a stone temple and three mud-brick warehouses that housed offerings and tools—as the tomb of Teti’s wife, Queen Naert. Around a month ago, the team found Naert’s name etched onto a wall in the temple and written on a felled obelisk near the entrance of the burial, per CBS News.

“I’d never heard of this queen before,” Hawass says to CBS News. “Therefore, we add an important piece to Egyptian history, about this queen.”

According to the statement, this is the first time archaeologists have unearthed 3,000-year-old coffins at Saqqara—one of Egypt’s “richest archaeological sites,” as Jo Marchant wrote for Smithsonian magazine last year. In recent months, excavations at the necropolis have yielded an array of exciting, albeit newer, finds, from sealed sarcophagi to ancient statues.

“Actually, this morning we found another shaft,” Hawass told CBS News on Monday. “Inside the shaft we found a large limestone sarcophagus. This is the first time we've discovered a limestone sarcophagus inside the shafts. We found another one that we're going to open a week from now.”

 The coffins found in the burial shafts probably hold the remains of followers of a Teti-worshipping cult formed after the pharaoh’s death, writes Owen Jarus for Live Science. Experts think that the cult operated for more than 1,000 years; members would have considered it an honor to be entombed near the king.

Other highlights of the discovery include a set of wooden masks; a shrine to the god Anubis; bird-shaped artifacts; games including Senet, which was believed to offer players a glimpse into the afterlife; a bronze ax; paintings; hieroglyphic writings; and fragments of a 13-foot-long, 3-foot-wide papyrus containing Chapter 17 of the Book of the Dead. The name of the scroll’s owner, Pwkhaef, is inscribed on the papyrus, as well as on one sarcophagus and four sculptures, according to Live Science.

These finds, notes the statement, as translated by CNN’s Amy Woodyatt, “will rewrite the history of this region, especially during the 18th and 19th dynasties of the New Kingdom, during which King Teti was worshiped, and the citizens at that time were buried around his pyramid.”

Pazartesi, Ocak 18, 2021

Photos: 5000-years-old Jiroft artifacts

 Jiroft culture" has been postulated as an early Bronze Age (late 3rd millennium BC) archaeological culture, located in what is now Iran's Sistan and Kerman Provinces. The hypothesis is based on a collection of artifacts that were confiscated in Iran and accepted by many to have derived from the Jiroft area in south central Iran, reported by online Iranian news services, beginning in 2001.

Many artifacts associated with Jiroft were recovered from looters described as "destitute villagers" who had scavenged the area south of Jiroft before 2001, when a team led by Yousef Madjidzadeh began excavations. The team uncovered more than two square kilometers of remains from a city dating back to at least the late 3rd millennium BC.

Jiroft is a city Kerman Province, Iran. Jiroft is located in a vast plain, Halil River, on the southern outskirts of the Jebal Barez mountain chain, surrounded by two rivers. The name "Jiroft" has recently become known in archaeological circles, after Iran's Cultural Organization announced the discovery of remains from an ancient city buried near the current city of Jiroft, leading to theories proposing the remains belong to a forgotton culture known as the Jiroft civilization.


Related News: Smuggled Jiroft Artifacts Returned to Iran from London

Source: Press TV

The Jiroft artifacts, which were delivered to the Iranian embassy in London last week, have been returned to Iran.

London Court of Appeal made a ruling last Thursday that the city's Barakat Gallery must return Iran's historical artifacts smuggled from the ancient site of Jiroft.

The ancient artifacts consisting of two jars, five cups, six vases, one bowl, one dish and three weights have been returned to the Iranian Embassy in London to be sent to Iran after seven years, IRNA reported.

The collection of 5,000-year-old artifacts was smuggled from Iran's southeastern site of Jiroft in a period of 3 years from 2001 to 2004.

In March 2007, London's High Court rejected Iran's ownership of the artifacts that had been put up for auction at the Barakat Gallery.

Iran's Cultural Heritage, Tourism and Handicrafts Organization (ICHTO) appealed to London's High Court to review the file of Jiroft relics.

The Court demanded 100,000 Euros as bail for reviewing the file, which was accepted by the Iranian government. Since then, Iranian officials have made serious attempts to return the priceless artifacts.

Jiroft is located near Halil Roud historical site, which is widely believed to have been one of the first places where civilization emerged.

The objects found in the area might reveal many aspects of the Persian civilization and other cultures that flourished in Mesopotamia in the third and fourth millennia BCE.

Related Article:

Public Plunder of Jiroft Artifacts Resumes - In January 2001 a group of Iranians from Jiroft in the southwestern province of Kerman stumbled upon an ancient tomb. Inside they found a hoard of objects decorated with highly distinctive engravings of animals, mythological figures and architectural motifs.